Wax emulsions can be based on different waxes, in any possible combination. The solids content of a wax emulsion can vary between 25% and 60% although lower and higher solids emulsions can be found as well. Viscosities range from 20 mPa.s to several 100 mPa.s and the pH values can vary between 3 and 10.
Particle sizes vary from nano particles in the range of 10 nanometer up to approx 10 micron. The majority of wax emulsions will have a particle size between 50 and 500 nanometer.
One important parameter for classifying wax emulsions is their ionic character which is set by the emulsifier system. For additional background information about this topic please jump to the surfactants section.
Wax emulsions can be fully cationic, non-ionic or anionic. Sometimes mixtures of non-ionic with cationic or anionic stabilization systems are found. It might be argued whether a fully non-ionic emulsion which is based on an acid functionalised wax is truly non-ionic, or a mixture of anionic with non-ionic.